References, sources and picture credits are being added here.

All picture credits citing IWM refer to images published by the Imperial War Museum, in Lambeth, south London. It is perhaps ironic that study facilities for their excellent picture reference library are located in the bell tower of the former Bedlam asylum which was converted as a commemorative museum for the Great War.


Beatles, The (1963) Please Please Me. Parlophone/EMI, London.

Beckett, S (1954) Waiting for Godot. Grove, New York. Second edition, Faber and Faber, London, 1965, reprinted 1975. First published, in French, as En Attendent Godot, Editions Minuit, Paris, 1952; written 1949.

Britten, B (1963) War Requiem, Opus 66. Decca, London. Digitally remastered, with notes by Christopher Palmer, and with rehearsal recordings, notes by Donald Mitchell, by Decca, London.

Britten, B (1965) Curlew River. London recordings, London.

Coombs, RE (1976) Before Endeavours Fade. Battle of Britain International, London. Seventh edition, 1994, reprinted 2003.

Copp, M (ed) (1997) From Emmanuel to the Somme – The War Writings of AE Tomlinson. Lutterworth, Cambridge.

Duchen, J (2009) Independent Review, 6 October, preview of RFH concert on Elgar’s With Proud Thanksgiving

Ferguson, N (1998) The Pity of War. Penguin, London.

Freud, Sigmund (1915) “Mourning and Melancholia” (first published in 1917), in The Penguin Freud Library, Volume II: On Metapsychology (1984). Penguin, London. pp245-268.

General Staff, The (1917) Notes on Trench Warfare. HMSO, London. Reprinted 2002 by Imperial War Museum, London.

Giddings, R (ed) (1988) The War Poets. Bloomsbury, London.

Journey’s End Programme (2004) Historical notes to the Background production at the Comedy Theatre, London

Lynch, EPF (2008) Somme Mud, Doubleday.

MacDonald, I (1994) Revolution in the Head: The Beatles’ Records and the Sixties. Fourth Estate, London. Second revised edition, 2005, Pimlico, London.

Ordnance Survey (1917) Trench Maps: Beaumont, 57D SE2, Edition 4A. Reprinted by GHSmith & Son, York.

Osborne, J (1956) Look Back in Anger. Published in 1957 by Faber and Faber, London. 1960 edition, reprinted 1976.

Pugh, M (2008) We Danced All Night: A Social History of Britain Between the Wars. Bodley Head, London.

Rossi, Aldo (1966) l’Architettura della Citta. First published in 1982 in English as The Architecture of the City. Oppositions Books, MIT, Cambridge, Mass.

Scott-Elliot, R (2007) The Way Home, Matador, Leicester.

Sherriff RC (1928) Journey’s End. Premiered at the Apollo theatre at the end of 1928 before a three-week run at the Savoy Theatre, London, from 21 January, 1929. Revived 75 years later at the Comedy Theatre, London, directed by David Grindley.

Steel, N & Hart, P (2000) Passchendaele – The Sacrificial Ground. Cassell, London.

Taylor, AJP (1963) The First World Ward – An Illustrated History. Hamish Hamilton, London. Published in paperback by Penguin, London, 1960.

Theatre Workshop (1963) Oh What a Lovely War. First produced Theatre Royal, Stratford East, 19 March 1963. First published 1965, Methuen, London. Revised edition, 2000, Methuen, London. Copyright of Joan Littlewood Productions, 1965.

Walsh, M (2006) Brothers in War, Ebury Press.

Walsh, MJK (2002) This Cult of Violence. Tate, London & Yale, New Haven.

Winter, J (1995) Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning. CUP, Cambridge.

Winter, J & Baggett, B (1996) The Great War. Penguin, London.

Films and television (alphabetical by title)

Battle of the Somme, The and The Battle of the Ancre and the Advance of the Tanks (1916). Remastered by the Imperial War Museum for video, 1998. IWM/DD Video, London. Original footage.

Battles of the Somme and the Ancre, The (1999) Trustees of the Imperial War Museum, London. Video by DD Video, London.

Blackadder (1989) 4th series, BBC, London. Directed by Richard Boden, produced by John Lloyd. With Rowan Atkinson, Tony Richardson, Stephen Fry, Hugh Laurie, Tim McInnerney. VHS video, 1998, BBC Worldwide, London. Episode 6, Goodbyeee [the wartime song also used in Oh What a Lovely War], ends with the cast going over the top.

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1921) Directed by Rex Ingram, starring Rudolf Valentino and produced by Metro. Based on the novel by Vicente Blasco Ibanez. Reproduced by Delta Entertainment, LA, 2006.

Great War, The (1964) BBC, London. Video by DD Video, 2001. Narrated by Michael Redgrave.

J’Accuse (1918) Directed by Abel Gance, produced by Pathe. With Romuald Joube and Severin-Mars.

Journey’s End (1930) A Gainsborough film directed by James Whale, screenwriter V Gareth Gundrey, with Colin Clive and Ian MacLaren. This film has not been remastered and is only available on private view at the British Film Institute, London.

Oh What a Lovley War (1969). Directed by Richard Attenborough, with Dirk Bogarde, John Gielgud, Ralph Richardson, John Mills. Paramount Pictures